Leaving aside the academic sidc of these methods, let us see what effects they had on the Muslim leadership and Muslim mentality.
Within thirty years after the death of The Holy Prophet every concievable way of acquiring power was used and canonized: election, Selection, Nomination and Military Power. Even after all these centuries, there cannot be thought any new way of coming to power. The result is that today every Muslim ruler aspires to occupy the seat of the "Khilafat" and 'Spritual Leadership" of the Muslims; and it is this basic defect of the Muslims' outlook which has always beer., and even today is, the underlying cause of political instability in Muslim world. Every Muslim ruler, who as a MusliM has been taught that ' Military supremacy'i is a Constitutional way to "Khila)'at" tries to weaken other Muslim rulers so that he himself may emerge as the supreme-most among the Muslim rulers. Thus, this Constitution has contributed directly towardsF the weakness of the Muslims in the world.
Apart from that, let us see once again how "all-encompassing" these methods have proved imrnediately after they were invented. This four-sided boundry of Caliphate is so useless that any body may enter into it, irrespective of his knowledge or character. The first Caliph after Moawiya was"Yazid", who was ''nominated" by Moawiya and had undisputed "military power." So he was a "Constitutional Caliph." But what was his belief and character? Yazid was a man bluntly refusing to believe in The Holy Prophet. He frankly stated his belief in this poem:
"Bani Hashim (The Holy Prophet and his family) staged a play to obtain a kingdom. Actually there was neither any news from God nor any revelation."
Neither did he believe in the Day of Judgement:
"O my beloved, (do not believe in meeting me after death, because) what they have told you about our being raised after death for Judgement is only a fiction which makes the heart forget the pleasures of this real world."
After assuming Caliphate, he openly cut jokes about Islamic prayers, (as we have described already); showed his disrespect of religion by putting the costumes of religious leaders on dogs and monkeys. Gambling and playing with bears were his favorite pastimes. He spent all his time in drinking anywhere and everywhere without any hesitation; he had no respect for any woman. Even the prohibited degrees like mother, sister, aunt and daughter were justlike any other woman in his eyes.
He sent his army to Medina. That Holy City of The Holy Prophet was freely looted. Three hundred virgin girls, apart from other women, were made the victims of their lust. Three hundred 'Qaaris' (Readers) of Quran and seven hundred companions of The Prophet were brutally murdered. The Holy Mosque of The Prophet remained closed for several days: the army of Yazid used it as their stable. Dogs made it their shelter and the Pulpit of the Prophet was made unclean by those beasts. Finally, the Commander of the army compelled the people of Medina to subrnit before Yazid by swearing these words: "We are the slaves of Yazid; it is upto him wnether he gives us back our freedom or sells us in the slaves market". Those who wanted to swear allegiance on thc conditions of 'the following, by Yazid, tne ir.structions of Quran and traditions of The Prophet were put to death. It will not be out of place to mention that the Prophet said:
"A person who makes the people of Medina afraid is condemned with eternal disgrace by Allah."
Then the army, by the order of Yazid, proceeded to Mecca. That holiest City of God was besieged by them. They could not enter the City, so they used 'Minjaniq' (Catapult: an ancient military device used to throw heavy stones onto the distant targets). By its help, they threw stones and burning wood towards the'Kntaba' as its target. The 'Kiswa', i.e. the canopy of the Ka'aba was burnt and a portion of that Holiest building came down.